Cómo mantener un diálogo con una persona esquizofrénica

27 de Mayo de 2011

Mi consulta es acerca de la mejor forma de tratar a mi madre, que es esquizofrénica. Cuando está mal, presenta alucinaciones auditivas, con lo cual muchas veces dice cosas en respuesta a voces que sólo oye ella. También gran parte de su discurso es paranoico, expone creencias de que la quieren perjudicar, o está a la defensiva y simplemente niega todo. También presenta una forma de hablar un tanto incoherente, y un largo etcétera, que es fácil de imaginar para cualquiera que haya tratado con este tipo de personas. La duda por tanto es, ¿cómo se puede mantener el diálogo? Está claro que ponerse a discutir sus incoherencias no lleva a ningún lado, e incluso puede llevar a que mi madre se enfade. Y seguir yo con mi propio discurso, al que ella no responde me cuesta una barbaridad, porque no soy una persona que tenga facilidad para hablar si no le están escuchando, directamente me quedo en blanco y no sé qué decir. Y no hablar con ella tampoco es una opción, claro, porque dejar a alguien solo, sin relacionarse con nadie, lo empeora todo. Así pues, ¿cómo se pueden enfocar estas situaciones para seguir manteniendo la relación de una forma positiva para ambas partes?

Responde: Sandra Borro

El tratamiento de la esquizofrenia requiere del empleo de psicofármacos y de técnicas de intervención psicosocial de tipo individual y familiar. Los familiares que cuidan al paciente psicótico, en su mayoría mujeres, deben afrontar niveles altos de estrés, que se incrementan cuando el cuidador es joven o posee un buen nivel educativo, o cuando el paciente posee un bajo nivel educativo. Por este motivo, en los centros de salud mental se llevan a cabo programas de intervención familiar que comprenden sesiones educativas, información sobre la etiología, curso, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad, identificación de los estresores relacionados con las recaídas clínicas, identificación de las respuestas emocionales de los familiares ante el diagnóstico y el comportamiento del paciente, obtención de expectativas reales, mejoramiento de la comunicación intrafamiliar, entrenamiento en solución de conflictos y empleo de técnicas cognitivo-comportamentales.

Para mejorar la relación y la comunicación con tu madre, intenta recordar o recuperar aquellos temas o actividades que le gustan y le hacen sentir bien; evita que se aisle, que salga cada día a la calle y haga compras o recados en la medida de sus posibilidades. Necesita rutina y orden en su vida, y es muy bueno que tenga pequeñas obligaciones que la ayuden a sentirse útil y la mantengan ocupada física y mentalmente. También puede acudir a un centro de día, donde recibirá la atención que necesita, y así evitas que esté sola en casa mientras la familia trabaja o estudia.

En ocasiones un paseo en silencio, disfrutando juntas de la naturaleza puede ser más beneficioso y placentero para ambas que intentar por tu parte comprender los complejos vericuetos de su mente o rebatir sus argumentos. Por otro lado, todos necesitamos a alguien que nos escuche y nos comprenda. Ella te tiene a ti, pero no olvides cuidar de ti misma, rodearte de personas que te brinden apoyo y cariño, y cultivar tus propios jardines privados para acompañarla en su enfermedad de un modo más adaptativo.

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